Legal Boundaries: Can a Company Legally Sue You for a Bad Review?


In today’s digital world, online reviews can make or break a business. As consumers, we often share our experiences with services or products online, but what happens when a negative review catches the eye of the business in question? This post delves into the legalities surrounding bad reviews, exploring if and when a business can take legal action against reviewers.

Understanding the Legal Grounds for Suing Over a Bad Review

Defamation, Libel, and Slander Explained

Defamation is a statement that injures a third party's reputation. The written form, libel, is most relevant to online reviews. Slander covers spoken statements. For a review to be defamatory, it must be proven false, published to a third party, and result in damage to the subject's reputation.

The Fine Line between Opinion and Defamation

Legally, there's a significant difference between an opinion and a defamatory statement. Saying "I had a bad experience" is different from falsely claiming "The restaurant has health violations." Understanding this distinction is crucial for both reviewers and businesses.

Understanding the Legal Grounds for Suing Over a Bad Review

Historical Precedents: Cases of Companies Suing Over Reviews

Notable Cases and Outcomes

Several cases have tested the boundaries of free speech and defamation in reviews. For instance, a lawsuit might ensue if a reviewer falsely accuses a business of illegal activities. Analyzing past legal battles provides insight into how the courts balance consumer opinions and protection of reputation.

Lessons Learned from Legal Battles

These cases often highlight the importance of providing honest, factual feedback without making unsubstantiated claims. They also show businesses the potential backlash from suing customers, emphasizing more constructive approaches to handling criticism.

Are Reviewers Protected?

In the U.S., reviewers are protected under the First Amendment and Anti-SLAPP laws. The First Amendment protects free speech. Anti-SLAPP statutes prevent companies from censoring reviewers and critics through intimidation. E.g., threatening to sue a client for leaving a review, or other strategic lawsuits against public participation. This means customers are free to leave a negative or good review about their experiences with a business. 

Freedom, however, doesn’t mean people can say what they want without consequences or that they’re protected from being sued. As you saw, companies can sue reviewers if the review meets the criteria of defamation.

Are Reviewers Protected?

Can a Company Sue You for a Bad Review?

Criteria for Legal Action

A business must prove that a review is both false and damaging to consider legal action. Mere dissatisfaction from a customer, expressed as an opinion, does not suffice.

Protecting Your Right to Free Speech

Reviewers should focus on factual accounts of their experiences. Providing specific details and avoiding unverifiable claims can protect against legal challenges.

What Do A Company Need To Sue Over A Bad Review?

To sue a client over a negative or untrue online review, companies need to prove that the statement is defamatory.

There are four elements to prove defamation:

  1. The review must be made available to someone other than the person or business it’s about. In other words, it must be published by a third party where others can access it.
  2. It must identify a specific person or business. For example, it must refer to you or your business name. It can’t be a general review you simply suspect is about you.
  3. You need to prove the review harmed you or your business in some way. For example, show how the review either damaged your reputation or affected your livelihood by taking business from you.
  4. The person who wrote the review must be at fault. That means that they have to know that their statement was false when they made it. A simple misunderstanding or mistake generally won’t count.

If you’re seriously considering taking someone to court, make sure the review includes all four elements to have the strongest case.

Companies should also pull copies of anything that may help you. For example:

  • Copies of all email, text, and written client conversations 
  • Copies of any contracts, agreements, quotes, invoices, and payments
  • Details about the review, including a copy, the web address, the social media site or review platform it was posted on, any responses or comments on it, information about the author, and the date and time
  • Details on relevant activities, like fleet tracking, employee timesheets, etc. to prove details about the case the author is referring to

How Businesses Should Responsibly Handle Negative Reviews

Encouraging Open Communication

Businesses benefit from addressing concerns directly with customers, offering to remedy the situation or clarify misunderstandings before it escalates to a legal matter.

Building a Positive Online Presence

Cultivating a strong, positive online presence can dilute the impact of negative reviews. Engaging positively with customers, soliciting feedback, and showcasing testimonials are strategies that reinforce a good reputation.

Preventative Measures: How to Review Wisely

Tips for Writing Honest and Fair Reviews

Stick to the facts and your personal experience. Avoid generalizations and focus on constructive criticism that can help the business improve.

Knowing Your Rights as a Reviewer

Familiarize yourself with the legal protections afforded to reviewers, including the right to express opinions and share experiences, provided they are truthful and not malicious.


The intersection of free speech and protection against defamation creates a complex landscape for online reviews. While businesses have the right to protect their reputation from false claims, consumers also have the right to share their genuine experiences. Navigating this requires a balance of honesty, respect, and legal awareness from both parties.

Legal Advice
Consumer Rights
Online Reviews
Business Reputation
Defamation Law
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Chi Linh

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Chi Linh

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